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Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Parasitology. Mostrar todas las entradas

Parasitology. Teaching Guide


Parasite of de parasites. Inside a She-oak gall is an insect larva, and on the larva are dozens of tiny red mites

The course Parasitology studies the parasites and their effects, for their scientific, ecological interest and in human and animal health. It is a science of sanitary, economic, and scientific importance since the parasites cause millions of deaths and diseases, enormous losses in livestock and crops, and their study teaches us to know better the living beings and ecosystems.

The first unit is about the parasites and the science of Parasitology, the second of protozoan parasites, third of helminths or parasitic worms, the fourth of parasitic arthropods and the fifth of two special cases of parasitism: parasitic plants and the brood parasite, which occurs in birds.

The course is completed with five lab experiments in which you learn to recognize protozoa, helminths and parasitic arthropods, and learn the techniques of treatment of feces and blood, hematological techniques and coprological techniques.


HOW TO FOLLOW THE COURSE

The course have five units. The first is an introduction to the world of Parasitology, the second is about protozoan parasites, third of parasitic worms or helminths, fourth of parasitic arthropods and fifth of parasitic plants and the brood parasite.

The tips for studying the various topics are as follows:

1. Read the summary as an introduction to the unit to be discussed

2. Read carefully the readings proposed in the corresponding links

3. Watch the videos to set the ideas and delve into the topics. However, these will not be subject to examination

4. Read the following diagrams and try to answer the questions that arise

5. Perform lab experiments, if not physically possible, in a virtual way

6. Expand, to the extent possible, Internet searches and / or written bibliography at the end of this guide

7. Go a lot further! At the end of this didactic guide we tell you


SCHEMES AND SYLLABUS


1. The Science of Parasitology

This Introductory Unit is about the science of Parasitology, the parasites and the Parasitolog Lab.

Important items to learn:

- Object of study of Parasitology

- Parasitism and types of parasites

- Origin of parasites

- Main groups of parasites


2. Parasitic Protozoology

This unit is about protozoan parasites.

Important items to learn:

- General Characteristics and Classification of Protozoa

- Main groups and species of species of protozoan parasites: parasitic amoebas, Entamoeba histolytica, free-living amoebozoa infection; intestinal Flagellates; Giardia duodenalis; trichomonanida; Trichomonas vaginalis; leishmania; Trypanosoma; apicomplexa: general characters and classification; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma; Plasmodium and Babesia.


3. Parasitic Helminthology

This unit is about parasitic helminths.

Important items to learn:

- General Characteristics and Classification of flatworms

- Main groups and species of flatworm parasites: Clonorchis; Opisthorchis and Paragonimus; Fasciola; other trematodes; Schistosoma; Pseudophyllidea: Diphyllobothrium; Cyclophyllidea; Taenia; Echinococcus; other cyclophyllidea

- General Characteristics and Classification of nematodes

- Main groups and species of nematodes parasites: trichuridae; Trichinella; Strongyloides stercoralis; Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus; Ascaris lumbricoides; Toxocara; Anisakis; other ascarididae; Enterobius vermicularis; Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia and Loa; Onchocerca volvulus; Dracunculus medinensis; other filarioidea.

- Acanthocephala, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

- Annelids leeches, Hirudo medicinalis; pentastomida; Linguatula serrata


4. Parasitic Arthropodology

This unit is about parasitic arthropods.

Important items to learn:

- General Characteristics, Classification and Health importance of arthropods

- Main groups and species of arthropods parasites: Acari; Sarcoptes scabiei; Ixodidae; Insects; Anoplura; Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis; Hemiptera; Cimex lectularius; Triatoma; Siphonaptera; Diptera; Tabanidae; Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans; Glossina; Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae; Sarcophaga carnaria; Wohlfahrtia magnifica; Culicidae.


5. Parasitic plants. Kleptoparasitism and Brood Parasitism

Parasitic plants. Santalales. Rafflesiaceae. Fungi. Cordyceps. Kleptoparasitism. Brood Parasite.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Association of Zoo Veterinarians Technicians. Parasitology Bibliography

FAO. Bibliography of Veterinary Parasitology

Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. Bibliography of Parasites and Vertebrate Hosts in Arizona, New Mexcino and Texas (1893-1984)

Penn. Veterinary Medicine. Introduction to the Parasitology Laboratory

Practical Science. Parasitology

Robyn Y. Shimizu. Parasitology

The Online Books Page. Parasitology

World Health Organization. Basic laboratory methods in medical parasitology (pdf)


HOW TO GET THE CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION

To obtain the Certificate of Completion, and if you wish the digital badge, of the Parasitology course you must pass the test exam with 60 questions with four alternative answers on the subjects that appear in the course program. About 15% of the issues will be related to virtual laboratory experiments. The test is passed with at least 80% of correct answers. The exam has a time limit of 60 minutes and can be repeated as many times as desired.

This is the web adress of the general post of the course, that includes the web address of the examination online to be able to obtain the certificate of completion.


WHEN YOU GET THE CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION...

Don't stop! Because it is when the Parasitology course begins. Read, learn, debate, comment, do courses, search the Internet and libraries, research and never stop learning. Remember that in today's world it changes so fast that it requires retraining and updating of knowledge.


Complete your certificate

If you wish, on the back of the diploma you can print the syllabus of course, downloading this doc file, Word.



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Parasitology

Schistosoma

THE COURSE

The course Parasitology shows the phenomenon of parasitism in living beings, as well as the different parasites, their effects and the fight against them.

Aspects treated by the course are the object and scope of parasitological science, and the different organisms and phenomena of parasitism: protozoan parasites, helminths or parasitic worms and parasitic arthropods. The course ends with a theme dedicated to plant parasitism and brood parasite.

The course is completed with five virtual labs, three dedicated to parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods, one to parasitic coprology and another to parasitic hematology.


COURSE PREREQUISITES

The necessary knowledge to take this course are those corresponding to a secondary education, preferably in the scientific field. In any case, it is necessary to have a basic training in Biology.


COURSE OBJECTIVES

The knowledge objectives of this course are as follows:

- To know the science of Parasitology and its field of study.

- Know the phenomenon of parasitism in living organisms.

- Know the protozoan parasites, their main representatives, their way of life and the diseases they cause.

- Know the parasitic helminths, their main representatives, their way of life and the diseases they cause.

- Know the parasitic arthropods, their main representatives, their way of life and the diseases they cause.

- Know the parasitic vegetables, their main representatives, their way of life and the diseases they cause.

- Understand and know the kleptoparasitism and within it, the parasitism of laying.


SYLLABUS

1. The Science of Parasitology

Parasitology. Interspecific interactions and parasitism. Origin of parasitism. Main classes of parasites. The parasitology lab: diagnosis approaches and methods.


2. Parasitic Protozoology

Protozoans. General characters and classification. Amoebiasis. Entamoeba histolytica. Free-living Amoebozoa infection. Intestinal Flagellates. Giardia duodenalis. Trichomonanida. Trichomonas vaginalis. Leishmania. Trypanosoma. Apicomplexa. General characters and classification. Cryptosporidium. Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma. Plasmodium and Babesia.


3. Parasitic Helminthology

Flatworm. General Characteristics and Classification. Clonorchis, Opisthorchis and Paragonimus. Fasciola. Other trematodes. Schistosoma. Cestodes. General Characteristics and Classification. Pseudophyllidea: Diphyllobothrium. Cyclophyllidea: Taenia. Echinococcus. Other cyclophyllidea. Nematodes: General Characteristics and Classification. Other trichuridae. Trichinella. Strongyloides stercoralis. Ancylostomatidae: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Ascaris lumbricoides. Toxocara, Anisakis. Other ascarididae. Enterobius vermicularis. Filarioidea: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia and Loa. Onchocerca volvulus. Dracunculus medinensis. Other filarioidea. Acanthocephala. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus. Annelids leeches. Hirudo medicinalis. Pentastomida. Linguatula serrata.


4. Parasitic Arthropodology

Arthropods. General Characteristics and Classification. Health importance of the arthropods. Acari. Sarcoptes scabiei. Ixodidae. Insects. Anoplura: Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis. Hemiptera. Cimex lectularius. Triatoma. Siphonaptera. Diptera. Tabanidae. Muscidae. Stomoxys calcitrans. Glossina. Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae. Sarcophaga carnaria. Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Culicidae.


5.- Parasitic plants. Kleptoparasitism and Brood Parasitism

Parasitic plants. Santalales. Rafflesiaceae. Fungi. Cordyceps. Kleptoparasitism. Brood Parasite.


LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

In this course, there are five laboratory experiments, can be done in virtual lab:

1. Identification of protozoan parasites

2. Identification of helminth parasites

3. Identification of arthropod parasites

4. Hematological methods in Parasitology

5. Coprological methods in Parasitology


BENEFITS OF THIS COURSE

This course is useful for work in clinics and hospitals, veterinary clinics, cattle raising, companies and institutions of human and animal health, organizations of aid to the Third World, pest control services, farmland assesment, supplies of deworming equipment, technical information about parasites and pests and in general in all type of work in which knowledge of parasitology is required. In business, this course of Parasitology can be useful to create companies, whether from the technical point of view, scientific dissemination, or commercial, such as web pages related to the world of parasites and pests.


ESTIMATED DURATION

The learning time can vary considerably depending on the capacity and the previous training that is possessed. In any case a duration of 60 hours is estimated.

Since there is no time limit, it's recommended to learn it at a pace of learning that is comfortable, take it in a pleasant way, schedule time and set goals.


TEACHING GUIDE

For the better use and learning of this course, and passing the exam, the Parasitology Teaching Guide has been created.


CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION

To obtain the Certificate of Completion, and if you wish the digital badge, of the Parasitology course you must pass the test exam with 60 questions with four alternative answers on the subjects that appear in the course program. About 15% of the issues will be related to virtual laboratory experiments. The test is passed with at least 80% of correct answers. The exam has a time limit of 60 minutes and can be repeated as many times as desired.

In order to obtain the certificate and the digital badge, it is necessary in the browser: 1) that pop-up windows can be opened, and 2) that webs can be printed as pdf documents.

It is recommended that before the examination, that the browser is configured correctly. If you have questions about course development and exams, you can take the CUVSI Learning Introduction course (in Spanish) or take the test for try. The two links can be translated, for example with Google Translate.




Other online courses, free of charge and with certificate of completion, which can be consulted in this link MOOCs of Parasitology (in spanish).


Spanish version of this course
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Parasitic plants. Kleptoparasitism and Brood Parasite

Cordyceps
Insect attacked by Cordyceps
In addition to parasitism caused by protozoa, worms and arthropods, there is also the parasitism carried out by plants. There are numerous species of parasitic plants, understanding as such, both fungi and plants. Plants are parasitic from other plants, while the fungi are from plants or animals.

Parasitic plants have a great variety, since they can be completely, as obliged, or in part, as facultative. They may also be parasitic on stems or roots. Some are important as crop pests, such as those of the genus Cuscuta, which coils around the parasitized plant and takes advantage of its vascular system, attacking pasture and monocotyledonous crops, and in which it is important to verify that the seed does not Contains Cuscuta.

The santalales are an order of dicotyledonous plants, most of which are parasitic or semi-parasitic. Among them is the famous mistletoe, plants belonging to the genus Viscum, which grow on trees, and that made magical sense for the Celts.

The Rafflesiaceae family belong to Rafflesia, the largest flowers in the world, which have no leaves, or almost stem. Its flowers are huge and smell rotten flesh, attracting flies.

Some of the parasitic fungi are pathogens, which can cause damage to host tissues. Microscopic fungi usually attack animals and plants, while the macroscopic ones most of them do on plants, attacking the roots and trunks of trees. They penetrate into the trunk or branches through their spores into the wounds. And not only attack the trees, there are also macroscopic fungi parasites of other fungi.

A special case is the fungi of the genus Cordyceps, which parasitize insects and other arthropods. The mycelium of the fungus invades the host, replacing its tissues with its own. Several species of Cordyceps have pharmacological interest and have been used as experimentation in the fight against field pests.

Kryptoparasitism is a special case of parasitism in which animals feed at the expense of others. Many arthropods are, stealing food from others. In birds and mammals this behavior must be understood as opportunism, rather than a form of existence.

The brood parasitism can be described as a species of kleptoparasitism, used by birds, fish, insects and freshwater turtles, in which the young are kept and fed by another species, at the expense of their own. A very studied species is the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). The female deposits an egg in the nest of another insectivorous species like her, replacing the original, which is similar. The cuckoo, at birth, grows much faster than other chicks, so it ends up expelling them. Finally, after doubling in size to his adoptive parents, the cuckoo leaves.


1. Parasitic plants. Santalales. Rafflesiaceae. Fungi. Cordyceps

- Reading: Wikipedia. Plant pathology (Parasitic plants)
- Reading: Wikipedia. Parasitic plant
- Reading: Wikipedia. Cuscuta
- Reading: Wikipedia. Santalales
- Reading: Wikipedia. Viscum
- Reading: Wikipedia. Rafflesiaceae
- Reading: Wikipedia. Rafflesia
- Reading: M.V. Gorlenko. Parasitic fungi
- Reading: Wikipedia. Cordyceps




2. Kleptoparasitism and Brood Parasitism

- Reading: Wikipedia. Kleptoparasitism
- Reading: Wikipedia. Brood parasite
- Reading: Wikipedia. Common cuckoo




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Hematological methods in Parasitology. Virtual Lab

Trypanosoma in blood

The detection and identification of parasites is the ultimate test of a parasitic disease. A microscopic analysis of blood is essential to identify the parasites that may exist in it. When these are in the blood or other body fluids, they must be analyzed for their presence or not. There are also concentration techniques, such as in coprological analysis.

Many of the techniques used are the usual ones for the microscopic analysis of fluids, others are more specific and require microscopic techniques of fixing and staining. The very specific techniques are performed according to the symptoms of illness that the person or the animal has, at the request of the medical or veterinary doctor.

There are two common techniques in examining blood samples for detection of parasites, smears and concentration. Giemsa staining is widely used for parasitic protozoans, using acid (eosin) and basic (methylene blue) dyes, Wright's differs from the former by the use of methanol in its composition, thus saving the previous step before staining the sample.

In addition to direct techniques, there are other indirect techniques, such as immunodiagnosis. The use of laboratory animals is another technique used through inoculation, usually in rats, mice or hamsters.


Background

- Reading: Veterinary Parasitology. Blood Parasite Examination
- Reading: Wikipedia. Giemsa stain
- Reading: Wikipedia. Wright' stain


Procedure

The lab experiment consists of an introduction to the techniques used for the detection of parasites in blood samples.


Preparing and staining blood film

- Reading: DPDX. Preparation of blood smears 





Examination the blood film of parasites

- Reading. WHO. Microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films for identification of malaria parasites





Wright and Giemsa stain

- Reading: Wikipedia. Wright's stain
- Reading: Wikipedia. Giemsa stain



Ways to perform the experiment

1. In Laboratory

The laboratory that performs experiments of parasitic hematology, must have a supply of samples, adequate instruments and staff training. Although the cost of the instruments is not very high, the problem is the supply of samples, although the practice can be performed  with clean blood of parasites.

2. In Home Lab

There are possibilities for setting up a low cost home microscopy lab (in spanish). You should do the practice with blood that are known to safely not have parasites, in order to practice the techniques.

Organizations that can provide samples for teaching, with adequate safety and hygiene measures are hospitals, university teaching centers (usually those that teach Medicine, Veterinary or Pharmacy), animal health centers, qualified herds, centers of analysis and research in human or animal health, veterinary clinics, etc.

In case there is a possibility, even remote, that the samples of blood are suspected of propagating bacteriological or other diseases (such as livestock or sick pets), and they want to learn the techniques exclusively for livestock or zootechnical interest, should not be practiced in a home and should be extended hygiene and safety measures. They should not be manipulated in any way, as this must be done by the health professionals.

In short, this practice should only be done in a home laboratory with clean blood of parasites and diseases. Blood sampling will be done under safety and asepsis conditions.

3. Virtually

For this purpose, can be done in this same post, watching carefully the videos of the procedure of the experiment.


Questions and activities

1.- Establish in a diagram the phases of a blood parasite analysis.

2.- What parasites and parasitic forms could we observe in a blood analysis?

3.- Going to the virtual lab Identification of protozoan parasites, of the protozoa that appear, What could we observe in the blood?

4.- What are the advantages of Giemsa and Wright's stains on non-staining observations?

5.- Search the Internet and bibliography techniques and recommendations in parasitic hematology.


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Parasitology. Exam


1. This exam has 60 questions with 4 alternative answers in which only one is correct. Pass the exam with 80% of correct answers.

2. The exam has a time limit of 60 minutes . The countdown starts when the page is loaded and the end time is reached, it is corrected automatically. To start the exam and start the countdown, press the Start the exam button and to end it End the exam .

3. You can repeat the exam as many times as you wish.

4. If you pass the exam, a message will open asking for your name and surname as you want it to appear on the diploma. After the last character do not add spaces. For the process to work, you must use the appropriate browser, with the appropriate settings, as shown on this link (in spanish).

5. By accepting the conditions and starting the exam, you are declared under your responsibility and honor that you will not cheat the exam.






1. A person can aquire toxoplasmosis from:

Oocyst in air
Pseudocyst in raw meat
Cleaning out the cat litter box
All of these


2. All different forms of Toxoplasma gondii can be present in the body of:

Bird
Human
Cat
Mice


3. A protozoan cyst that contains four nuclei should be identified as:

Giardia lamblia
Trichomonas vaginalis
Trypanosoma
Toxoplasma gondii


4. All of the following organisms NOT tends to cause diarrhea:

Cryptosporidium
Trichomonas vaginalis
Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histotytica


5. Parasitic organisms that may be sexually transmitted include:

Cryptosporidium
Trichomonas vaginalis
Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histotytica


6. The specimen that is LEAST LIKELY to provide recovery of Trichomonas vaginalis is:

Urine
Urethral discharge
Prostatic discharge
Feces


7. What is the primary cause of Amebiasis?

Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histolytica
Toxoplasma gondii
Cystoisospora belli


8. Where is the highest occurrence of amebiasis found?

Europe
Desert regions
Russia
Tropical regions


9. Which of the recognized groups of protozoans lack typical organelles for movement?

Flagellates
Amoebas
Apicomplexans
Ciliates


10. What aree the vectors of Leishmania?

Cats
Dogs
Mosquitoes
Rodents


11. Which of the following statements concerning Ascaris lumbricoides is NOT correct?

Both dogs and cats are intermediate host of Ascaris lumbricoides
Ascaris lumbricoides is transmitted by ingestion of eggs
Ascaris lumbricoides can cause pneumonia
Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the largest nematode


12. In malaria, the form of plasmodia that is transmitted from mosquito to human is the:

Sporozoite
Gametocyte
Merozoite
Hypnozoite


13. Mosquitoes are the vector in the following diseases:

Visceral leishmaniasis
Onchocerciasis
Bancroftian filariasis
African trypanosomiasis


14. The vector of Brugia malayi is:

Tissue
Mosquito
Continuous nuclei at the tip of the tail
Microfilaria in blood and lymphatic aspirate smears


15. The vector of Loa loa is:

Filariasis or Elephantiasis
Horseflies
Mosquitoes
Bugs


16. Onchocerca volvulus is transmitted by:

River blindness
Tissue
Larvae enters bite site
Blood


17. Calabar swellings are produced by:

Microfilaria in blood and lymphatic aspirate smears
River blindness
A transient swelling of subcutaneous tissues seen in infections with the filarial nematode Loa Loa
Blood and lyphatic fluid


18. What is the mode of transmission of Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus?

Tissue
Microfilaria in blood smear
Larvae enters bite site
Guinea worm or Fiery serpent


19. For the host, the most dangerous relationship with another organism is:

Commensalism
Mutualism
Parasitism
Symbiosis


20. Protozoa:

Are mostly parasitic
Are completely resistant to chemotherapy
Are mostly visible to the naked eye
Can infect insects


21. The term ectoparasites includes:

Some insects
Some viruses
Some bacteria
Some protozoa


22. What is the most prevalent protozoan disease in the world?

Amebiasis
Giardiasis
Malaria
Trypanosomiasis


23. What is the intermediate host for the schistosomes?

Soil
Blood-sucking insects
Snails
Raw sewage


24. What helminthic infection results in elephantiasis?

Teniasis
Schistosomiasis
Whipworm infection
Bancroftian filariasis



25. This protozoan parasite in a blood sample is:

Acanthamoeba
Giardia duodenalis
Trypanosoma
Cryptosporidium


26. Protozoal disease:

Is generally acute (short-lived)
Is commonest in the tropics
Is only seen in immunodeficient individuals
Is seldom fatal


27. Which helminth is parasite of the cow?

Taenia saginata
Taenia solium
Trichinella spiralis
Ascaris lumbricoides


28. The bed bug is:

Sarcoptes scabiei
Cimex lectularius
Pediculus humanus
Triatoma


29. Chagas disease is transmitted by:

Sarcoptes scabiei
Cimex lectularius
Pediculus humanus
Triatoma


30. The knowledge of parasites is important for:

Humans
Cattle
Environment
All above


31. Fungus parasitism of interest in agriculture is:

Viscum
Rafflesia
Cordyceps
Cuculus


32. Sanitary important arthropod ectoparasites:

Are mainly important as triggers of allergy
Transmit only virus infections
Transmit only bacterial infections
Are mainly important as disease vectors


33. The term proglottid is only used when referring to the:

Turbellaria
Trematoda
Annelids
Cestodes


34. Which one of the following taxa has an ectoparasitic life cycle?

Turbellaria
Trematoda
Annelids
Cestodes


35. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus belongs to phylum:

Acanthocephala
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelida


36. The hydatid cyst is produced by:

Trichuris trichiura
Strongyloides stercoralis
Echinococcus granulosus
Clonorchis sinensis


37. Malaria is a disease caused by the genus Plasmodium, the vector are:

Horseflies
Flies
Mosquitoes
Bugs


38. This worm parasite belongs to genus:

Ascaris
Trichuris
Trichinella
Taenia


39. Myasis is produced by:

Horseflies
Flies
Mosquitoes
Bugs


40. The Emery's Rule is related to:

Ectoparasitism
Endoparasitism
Kleptoparasitism
Brood parasitism


41. Each of the following statements concerning Malaria is correct except:

The principal site of gametocyte formation is the human gastrointestinal tract
The cause is the protozoo Trypanosoma
Early infection, sporozoites enter hepatocytes
The female anopheles mosquito is the vector


42. Each of the following parasite is transmitted by true mosquitoes except:

Wuchereria bancrofti
Plasmodium falciparum
Brugia malayi
Leishmania donovani


43. In this muscle tissue, what parasite does it appear?

Brugia malayi
Loa loa
Trichinella spiralis
Onchocerca volvulus


44. The Ziehl–Neelsen stain uses:

Sulfuric acid
Carbol Fuchsin
Alcohol
All above


45. Parasite that mostly feed themselves by sucking blood is known as:

Host
Agent
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite


46. The common cuckoo is an example of:

Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Brood parasite
Kleptoparasite


47. Entamoeba histolytica invades the:

Lungs
Liver
Small intestine
Colon


48. All different forms of Toxoplasma gondii can be present in the body of:

Cat
Human
Mice
Cow


49. Flask shaped ulcers in human intestine are related to:

Giardia
Trichomonas
Cryptosporidium
Amoeba


50. Which parasitic form is related to congenital toxoplasmosis?

Tachyzoite
Trophozoitebr
Oocyst
Tissue cyst


51. Which are the components of Wright's stain?

Eosin Y
Azure B
Methylene blue
All above


52. The Black Death in Medieval Europe was transmited trough:

Lice
Fleas
Mosquitoes
Bedbugs


53. Ancylostomiasis is caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and:

Stronglyoides stercoralis
Necator americanus
Strongyloides stercoralis
Toxocara canis


54. The enterobiasis is caused by:

Necator americanus
Ascaris lumbricoides
Enterobius vermicularis
Trichinella spiralis


55. The tsetse fly belongs to the genus:

Glossina
Stomoxys
Wohlfahrtia
Sarcophaga


56. The stable fly belongs to the genus:

Glossina
Stomoxys
Wohlfahrtia
Sarcophaga


57. Which of these vegetables is NOT a parasite?

Viscum
Santalales
Cuscuta
All are parasites


58. How do humans acquire trichinosis?

By insects
By eating the uncooked meat of an infected animal
By frequent contact with a pig's fur, paws, and tongue
By areas where cats or dogs have defecated


59. Identify which of the listed parasites is not an ectoparasite:

Fleas
Ticks
Roundworms
Mites


60. The order Hemiptera contains:

Bed bugs
Mantids
Crickets
Sucking lice




Grade =



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Coprological methods in Parasitology. Virtual Lab

Medical lab

The coprological methods are the scientific study of feces. This study can be approached from many disciplines, from the identification of animals (it is a key tool for the identification of dinosaurs), the study of their feeding or the investigation of diseases. In Parasitology we would have coproparasitology, which is the study of feces to determine the presence or not of parasites.

The parasitic coprology investigates the presence of endoparasites in their different forms: trophozoites, spores, cysts, oocysts, eggs, larvae and adults.

The detection of endoparasites is often complicated by their diversity, their cycles, and different stool conditions, so there is no single method that can establish their presence clearly.

Recognition can be by sight or microscopic. In the microscopic, they can be observed in fresh or with different dyes (like lugol, thionine or clorazol), or also with permanent dyes (like Ziehl-Neelsen, methylene blue, safranin, Giemsa, etc.). There are also concentration techniques, such as flotation.


Background

- Reading: FAO. Techniques for parasite assays and identification in faecal samples
- Reading: M. Arcari, A. Baxendine and C. E. Bennett. Diagnosing Medical Parasites Through Coprological Techniques



Procedure

The lab experiment consists of an introduction to the coprological techniques used for the detection of intestinal parasites.


Stool sample

- Reading: WikiHow. How to Take a Stool Sample
- Reading: Lab Tests Online. Ova and Parasite Exam

Ziehl–Neelsen stain

- Reading: Dhurba Giri. Ziehl-Neelsen Stain (ZN-Stain) : Principle, Procedure, Reporting and Modifications







Additional readings

- Reading: CDC. Stool Specimens - Specimen Processing 
- Reading: Monika M. Manser, Agatha Christie Santos Saez, and Peter L. Chiodini. Faecal Parasitology: Concentration Methodology Needs to be Better Standardised


Ways to perform the experiment

1. In Laboratory

The laboratory that performs experiments of parasitic coprology, must have a supply of samples, adequate instruments and staff training. Although the cost of the instruments is not very high, the problem is the supply of samples, although the practice can be performed with clean parasite stool.

2. In Home Lab

There are possibilities for setting up a low cost home microscopy lab (in spanish). You should do the practice with human feces or domestic animals that are known to safely not have intestinal parasites, in order to practice the techniques.

If there is a possibility, even remotely, that the samples may contain intestinal parasites (such as those from a cattle or sick domestic animal), and they want to learn the techniques exclusively for livestock interests or Zootechnical, practice should not be done in a house and the hygiene and safety measures should be exceeded. It is better to have a specialist or do it with supervision of the same.

In case there is a possibility, even remote, that the samples are suspected of propagating bacteriological or other diseases, they should not be manipulated in any way, as this must be done by the health professionals.

In short, this practice should only be done in a home laboratory with clean feces of parasites and diseases.

3. Virtually

For this purpose, can be done in this same post, watching carefully the videos of the procedure of the experiment.


Questions and activities

1.- Establish in a diagram the phases of a fecal parasite analysis.

2.- What parasites and parasitic forms could we observe in a stool analysis?

3.- Going to the virtual lab Identification of helminth parasites, of the helminths that appear, What could we observe in the faeces?

4.- Search the Internet and bibliography techniques and recommendations in parasitic coprology.




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Parasitic Arthropodology

Scanning electron micrograph of a mite
Scanning electron micrograph of a mite
Arthropods are the great triumphers of living beings, they are abundant in numbers and diversity, and so much so that they are very parasites and pests.

Mites are very small arachnids with eight legs, abundant and colonizers from all parts of the Earth. Some mites are very harmful, as they are parasites and pests of crops, in addition to causing allergies with their corpses and excrement. Among them are Sarcoptes scabiei is the  itch mite, a mite that digs tunnels in the skin causing intense itching, and ixodids or ticks, which feed on the blood of mammals.

In the world of arthropods, insects are the great triumphers, in quantity and diversity. Within the anuplura, lice and crab louses, they have importance for the human species, the head louse and the body louse, that belong to the species Pediculus humanus, but they are two distinct subspecies, and the crab louse (Pthirus pubis), that not only affect the pubic areas, but can also affect the hair, eyebrows and body hair.

Cimex lectularies, bed bug
Cimex lectularius, bed bug
Hemiptera are insects that suck blood or sap, some of them parasites or pests, although there are also beneficial, predators of other insects. This group belongs to Cimex lectularius, the bed bug, which has adapted to the human environment, feeding on blood in beds and sofas, usually with nocturnal habits. Although the transmission of diseases is not known, the itching is extremely annoying. In some houses and hotels are common, so they should be treated the rooms in which they are.

The genus Triatoma belong to blood-sucking insects that can transmit diseases, such as Chagas disease, caused by protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi.

Siphonapters are fleas, small insects without wings, which feed on the blood of mammals. Its body is small and resistant, can withstand the pressure of the human fingers in the scratching. They can transmit diseases. The flea of the rat caused the Black Death in medieval Europe, which killed 1 in 3 Europeans.

Diptera, an order of insects to which flies and mosquitoes belong, has numerous parasites and disease transmitters. One of its most terrible consequences in humans and livestock is myiasis, destruction of living tissue by infection and feeding of larvae.

Myiasis in a cat
Myiasis in a cat
Tabanidae, the horseflies, family belonging to Diptera. They have a strong sexual dimorphism, the males of the females are very different. Females sting mammals and birds and feed on blood. Some are transmitters of diseases like filaria Loa loa.

Muscidae is another family of Diptera, among which is the common fly, which is not chopping or hematophagous, but can transmit numerous diseases. Stomoxys calcitrans, the stable fly, mainly attacks cattle, but can also attack any warm-blooded species. In addition to the economic damages it causes, it is a vector of numerous diseases. The genus Glossina belongs to the tse-tse fly that transmits the soil disease or trypanosomiasis, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma. Sarcophaga carnaria and Wohlfahrtia magnifica cause myiasis that affect mainly cattle, although they can affect the human species.

Culicidae is another family of Diptera, popularly known as mosquitoes. Females suck blood and can transmit disease. Among them is Anopheles, an endemic vector of malaria.


1. Arthropods. General Characteristics and Classification. Health importance of the arthropods

- Reading: Wikipedia. Arthropod
- Reading: D.J. Lewis. Arthropod Vectors of Public Health Importance (pdf)
- Presentation: Alexandra Fondren. Arthropods (prezi)
- Video: Smithsonian Education. What is an Arthropod?


2. Acari. Sarcoptes scabiei. Ixodidae

- Reading: Wikipedia. Acari
- Reading: Wikipedia. Sarcoptes scabiei
- Reading: Wikipedia. Tick
- Video: Icsp94. Scabies mite
- Video: Pet Health Network. Tick Lifecycle


3. Insects. Anoplura: Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis

- Reading: Wikipedia. Insect (Morphology and physiology, Reproduction and development, Senses and communication, Relationship to humans, etc.)
- Reading: Wikipedia. Head louse
- Reading: Wikipedia. Body louse
- Reading: Wikipedia. Crab louse
- Video: National Geographic. Secret Life of Head Lice
- Video: dranujsing123. Pthirus pubis [Crab louse or Pubic louse]


4. Hemiptera. Cimex lectularius. Triatoma. Siphonaptera

- Reading: Wikipedia. Hemiptera
- Reading: Wikipedia. Bed bug
- Reading: Wikipedia. Triatoma
- Reading: Wikipedia. Flea
- Reading: Wikipedia. Human flea
- Video: BBCWorldwide. A Bedbug's Bite - Up Close! - Bang Goes the Theory 
- Video: AnimalCareTV. Understanding Flea and Tick Control


5. Diptera. Tabanidae. Muscidae. Stomoxys calcitrans. Glossina. Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae. Sarcophaga carnaria. Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Culicidae

- Reading: Wikipedia. Fly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Myasis
- Reading: Wikipedia. Horse-fly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Tabanus
- Reading: Wikipedia. Muscidae
- Reading: Wikipedia. Housefly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Stable fly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Tsetse fly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Calliphoridae
- Reading: Wikipedia. Flesh fly
- Reading: Wikipedia. Sarcophaga
- Reading: Wikipedia. Wohlfahrtia magnifica
- Reading: Wikipedia. Mosquito
- Video: Wildlife & Tribes. The most dangerous mosquitoes and Parasites Eating Us Alive 
- Video: Wellcome Library. The life cycle of the tsetse fly


Identification of arthropod parasites. Virtual Lab


Spanish version of this page


Parasitology
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